The CT Angiographic Pattern of Renal Arterial Anatomy Among Africans and it implication on Renal Transplantation
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Renal transplantation is the preferred treatment of patients suffering from end stage renal disease. Apart from improving patients’ quality of life, transplantation also confers longevity. Because challenges in performing vascular anastomosis increase significantly in variant renal anatomy knowledge on renal vascular anatomy is very important in the pre surgical workup of potential kidney donors. Ischemic changes commonly occur following attempts to sacrifice extra branches in patients with multiple renal arteries. Other complications may include thrombosis and stenotic lesions increasing the risks of dysfunction in the transplanted kidney. Bleeding is a common complication during laparoscopic harvesting of kidneys with multiple arteries. Anatomical patterns of renal arteries vary geographically and ethnically.




The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of renal arterial anatomy among Africans, and its implication on renal transplantation.




The study was a three-year cross sectional descriptive study conducted at Kenyatta National Hospital from June 2008 to June 2011.




A total of 204 cases including 103 (50.5%) females and 101 (49.5%) males were recruited for CTA. The mean age of participants was 47.16 years (SD 18.32). The prevalence of accessory arteries was 11.3% and prevalence of left sided accessory arteries (7.4%) was higher than right-sided accessory arteries (4.9%). Most normal sized kidneys with accessory arteries had smaller main renal arterial diameters. Extra renal branching occurred in 14.7% of cases.




The current value of Renal CTA cannot be easily replaced by simpler noninvasive modalities for indirect and accurate study of renal vascular anatomy of potential kidney donors.